Friday, September 22, 2017

Indigenous Peoples Index

Samples of lessons and crafts about Indigenous peoples.
       Indigenous peoples or Natives (formerly Indians) held undisputed possession of the wilds of the Americas before the European invasion of those continents. Once masters of the fairest regions on the globe, the natives represented many degrees of civilization. They ranged from nomadic tribes, wandering the grasslands freely in order to hunt the buffalo to survive to those native peoples whose architectural achievements in the tropical rain forests of South America made their conquerors marvel.
Indigenous Peoples' Artifacts & Art for Enhancing Lesson Plans:
  1. Craft a paper war bonnet
  2. Gobble Up Over 100 Turkeys!
  3. Cut and Paste Paper Pueblos
  4. Picture Puzzle: Find the hidden potter
  5. Molas Characterized by Kuna Legends, Real Animals, Politics or Geometric Shapes 
  6. Squanto, The Native American Hero of Thanksgiving 
  7. Weave Indian Corn for Autumn Fun!
My Indigenous People's Art Lessons & Crafts from Art Education Daily:

The Life of President George Washington

Gilbert Stuart's unfinished 1796 painting of
 George Washington is also known as  
The Athenaeum, his most celebrated
 and famous work.
       George Washington(1732-1799), an American soldier and statesman, the hero of American independence, and the first President of the nation which he helped to establish. There are two Americans of the generations now past who have won the undying love and reverence of their countrymen - Washington and Lincoln.
       Though they are equally honored, the one as founder and the other as preserver of the American nation, they are thought of as totally different types. Lincoln, so much nearer our own time, is by far the more human figure. His humanity, his rugged appearance, his humor and his kindliness are remembered as the characteristics of a very real man. Washington is more or less of a mythical personage. The idealized portrait painted by Charles Stuart, reproduced right, is in a way symbolic of the impression that Americans cherish of the "Father of His Country." He seems to them a lofty figure somewhat detached from everyday life; a great man, but one aloof from his fellowmen; a strong man, but without fire and vigor. The complete record of his life refutes these ideas. There is every reason to believe that if he were alive to-day he would be a virile and influential figure in American political affairs, a personality as vivid as in his own time. 
Artifacts About President George Washington:
  1. Questions and Answers About George Washington
  2. President Washington's Receptions
  3. Farewell, Address To His Officers
  4. Tribute To Washington
  5. Ode For Washington's Birthday
  6. Washington's Birthday by William Cullen Bryant
  7. Welcome to Lafayette by Edward Everett
  8. The Twenty-Second of February by Webster
  9. True Heroism
  10. Under The Washington Elm, Cambridge
More Online Resources:

The End of Washington's Story

       Washington declined a third election, delivered his famous farewell address and retired to Mount Vernon in 1797. Thereafter he devoted himself to agriculture, though in 1798, at the prospect of the war with France, he was chosen commander in chief of the United States army and accepted, though he was not called into the field. He died in December, 1799, from illness brought on by long exposure in the saddle. The news caused almost as widespread mourning in Europe as in America. The greatest statesmen and soldiers of every nation united in paying him tribute as a man, general, statesman and friend of humanity. The words of his old friend and companion, "Lighthorse Harry" Lee, "First in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen," were without question literally true. He had avoided the snares of factional and partisan politics, had generously overlooked the harshest criticisms and had respected and used the abilities of his severest critics and opponents. Though a slave-holder at his death, he was in favor of the gradual abolition of slavery by legislation, and by his will he arranged that his one hundred twenty-five slaves should be emancipated at the death of his wife, so that the negroes of the two estates who had intermarried might not be separated." Washington's body and that of his wife, who survived him nearly three years, rest in the family vault at Mount Vernon. 

President Washington's Second Term

       During this term international affairs for a time overshadowed domestic issues. A war between France and England vastly aroused the sympathies of a group friendly to France, and there were some extremists who demanded that the nation go to its assistance. Another faction as vehemently urged neutrality or support for England. Washington, who saw clearly that the United States was too weak and insecure to be implicated in European quarrels, issued a proclamation of neutrality and refused to take sides. An unfortunate incident of this affair was the activity of Edmon, or "Citizen," Genet, a Frenchman whose defiance of the proclamation caused the government considerable anxiety. The French sympathizers were also greatly exercised over the acceptance of the Jay Treaty (1794) with England. This treaty was not so favorable to America as its sponsors wished, but it was the best that could be obtained, and it served the purpose of averting war with England, which Washington felt would be a national calamity.
       The power of the Federal government was vigorously exercised in this administration. In Pennsylvania in 1794 there occurred an insurrection in protest against the excise tax, to quell which Washington ordered out 15,000 militia. Trouble with the Indians was settled by Anthony Wayne's victory over them at Fallen Timbers in 1794, and by the negotiation of treaties. Other events include the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney; the erection of the first woolen mill in Massachusetts; the admission of Tennessee into the Union, and the development of two great political parties, by followers of Hamilton and Jefferson, respectively.

The Constitution and First Administration

       Five years after the signing of the peace treaty a new crisis called Washington again into public life. Under the Articles of Confederation affairs were steadily growing more chaotic, and in May, 1787, a convention was called to meet in Philadelphia to prepare a new form of union. To this body Washington was sent as head of the Virginia delegation; on its organization he was unanimously elected its president. In September the convention completed a new Constitution and gave it to the states for ratification. The influence that Washington exercised in the consummation of this great achievement is ably summarized in Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People:

       "It gave the convention great dignity that Washington had presided over its counsels and was heart and soul for the adoption of the measures it proposed. His name and quiet force had steadied the convention on many an anxious day when disagreement threatened hopeless breach. His fame and Influence infinitely strengthened also the measures proposed, now that they were completed. He supported them because they were thorough-going and courageous and cut to the root of the difficulties under which the country was laboring. Issue had been joined now, as he had wished to see it joined, between government or no government, and the country was to know at last where it stood in the most essential matters of its life."

       It is not surprising that when the votes of the first Electoral College were counted it was found that Washington was the unanimous choice for President of the United States, John Adams was honored with the Vice-Presidency. Washington was inaugurated in New York, - which was then the national seat of government. Standing on the balcony in front of the old Federal Hall, whose site is now occupied by the imposing Subtreasury, he took the oath of office on April 30, 1789, though the legal day for the ceremony was March 4. Difficulties in setting the new machinery in motion were responsible for the delay.
       From the first he displayed in civil affairs the same equalities of leadership and invariable good judgment which he had shown during his military career. He set about informing himself concerning all that had happened during the period of the Confederation - the relations of the new government to foreign nations, and the questions of internal administration and finance, which were soon to become pressing issues. He also chose a remarkably strong Cabinet, including Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, who, though directly opposite in their political opinions, were acknowledged leaders in the political life of the country.
       The selection of Alexander Hamilton as head of the Treasury Department was momentous in its results, for through his farseeing statesmanship the country was put on a sound financial basis. In accordance with Hamilton's program the national government assumed the debts of the states incurred during the war; a national bank and a mint were established; and a national income was provided for by duties on imports and a system of internal revenue.
       Other important events of the first four years under the Federal Constitution were the organization of the United States Supreme Court, the admission of Vermont (1791) and Kentucky (1792) as states, the adoption of a decimal system of coinage, and the incorporation into the Constitution of the first ten amendments. So profoundly impressed were the people with the results of Washington's first term that there was a spontaneous demand that he serve again. Against his personal wishes he consented, and was unanimously reelected, being inaugurated in Philadelphia on March 4, 1793. The city of Washington did not become the national capital until 1800.

The Revolutionary War

       On June 15, 1775, two months after the Battle' of Lexington, Washington was unanimously chosen by Congress to be commander in chief of the Continental forces. Addressing the assembly the following day, he modestly accepted the honor, and assured the delegates that he would expect no remuneration except for his own expenses. He then departed on horseback for Boston, and on July 3, 1775, took command of the Continental army, in Cambridge. The old elm under which this ceremony took place is still preserved as a cherished relic. 
       The military events of the long struggle which the colonies waged for independence are told in these volumes in the article on the Revolutionary War. The personal share of Washington in the hard-won victory cannot be overestimated; from the perspective of a century and a half it seems almost incredible that he did succeed. Difficulties beset him that would have broken the courage of a weaker man. His little army of barely 14,000 was lacking in arms, supplies, discipline and organization. There was no uniform policy among the colonies on any matters essential to the prosecution of the war, and authority was vested in too many officials and organizations to bring about any semblance of unity. There were bickerings, quarrels and plots. Yet, somehow, Washington overrode all obstacles. For one thing, he was loved and trusted by his men, and because of that trust they endured terrible hardships to uphold him.
       When the army went into winter quarters at Valley Forge, in December, 1777, Washington informed Congress that he had 2,898 men unfit for duty because they were "bare- footed and otherwise naked." It is a matter of record that blood in the snow marked the path of those unshod troops as they marched into camp.
       As a military leader Washington was superior to any of the field commanders sent over by England. In fact his tactics in the movements on the Delaware River were characterized by Frederick the Great as the "most brilliant achievements recorded in military annals." Years later the old Prussian soldier sent his portrait to Washington, with this message: "From the oldest general in Europe to the greatest general in the world."
       Coupled with his genius as a soldier was an abiding faith in the justice and ultimate triumph of the American cause. Toward the close of the stiniggle a movement was started to have Washington assume the title of king, but his repudiation of such a course was voiced in language as vigorous as he could make it. His great popularity never undermined his modest sense of his own worth or his deep-rooted conviction that the American nation was destined to be a democracy in which kings could have no part. On November 2, 1783, he took final leave of his faithful army, and the following December appeared before Congress to resign the commission tendered him over seven years before. He said: 

"Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action, and, bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all employments of public life." "You retire," replied the president of Congress," from the theatre of action with the blessings of your fellow-citizens; but the glory of your virtues will not terminate with your military command: it will continue to animate remotest ages."

       On Christmas Eve Washington arrived at Mount Vernon, where, during the interval before the organization of the government under the Constitution, he enjoyed once more the life of plantation owner and private citizen. 

"The Shot Heard 'Round the World" by Liberty's Kids

At Mount Vernon

Washington's Home in Mount Vernon.
       The period between the close of the French and Indian War and the outbreak of the Revolution brought to Washington some of the happiest years of his life. In January, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha Custis, an attractive and wealthy young widow with two children, John and Martha Parke Custis. The management of his own and his wife's property provided an outlet for his business instincts, and he entered whole-heartedly into the public affairs of Virginia colony as a delegate to the House of Burgesses, to which he had been elected before his marriage. These duties, with those of a good churchman and a hospitable colonial gentleman, rounded out a life completely wholesome and happy. The Mount Vernon mansion was always filled to over- flowing during the hunting season, but none of its inmates enjoyed the pleasures of the chase more than the master himself.
       As relations grew strained between the colonies and the mother country, Washington for a long time hoped that an agreement might be reached without resort to war, and he was very guarded in his utterances. In 1769, however, he drew up a nonimportation agreement which was adopted by the House of Burgesses, and from that time on he refused to permit any of the banned articles to be brought into his house.
       As a member of the provincial convention, held in August, 1774, at Williamsburg, he vigorously upheld the right of the colonies to govern themselves, and, moved by reports about the effects of the Boston Port Bill, exclaimed in an impassioned speech, "I will raise a thousand men and march with them, at their head, for the relief of Boston." Virginia sent him as one of its six delegates to the First Continental Congress, and in this and the succeeding Congress, held in 1775, he was clearly one of the commanding figures, though he let others make the speeches.
Washington's Grave in Mount Vernon.

The Early Military Career of Washington

       Not long before he died Lawrence Washington had used his influence to have his brother appointed an adjutant-general over one of the several military districts into which Virginia colony was divided. This division was rendered necessary by the threatened encroachments of the Indians and of the French, who were establishing posts along the Ohio. Washington's eager pursuit of the study of military tactics was interrupted by the trip to the West Indies, but he resumed his duties as adjutant general after his return, and late in 1753 was requested by Governor Dinwiddle to carry a message of warning to the French forces in the Ohio Valley. It was a hazardous mission for a young man of twenty-one, and the selection reflects favorably upon Washington's reputation for reliability and good judgment. In November, accompanied by an experienced frontiersman, he started on his 600-mile journey After many narrow escapes from the Indians and the perils of the wilderness, he completed his mission and reported to Governor Dinwiddle on January 16, 1754, at Williamsburg, the capital of Virginia. Shortly afterwards he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Virginia regiment.
       A skirmish with the French in the summer of 1754, which was not decisive, was followed by a reorganization of the Virginia, troops and Washington's temporary retirement from things military. Early in 1755, however. General Braddock arrived from England with two regiments of British regulars, and offered the young colonial a place on his staff, with the rank of colonel. Promptly accepting, Washington entered eagerly into the preparation of the campaign, and on July 9 took part in the disastrous fight at Fort Duquesne. How the English regulars were mowed down by bullets fired from behind trees, and how the Virginians under Washington saved the little army from annihilation by fighting under cover, as did the French and Indians, is known to every American school boy. The troops succeeded in withdrawing from the field, but Braddock was fatally wounded, and died four days later. Washington later reorganized the colonial troops and was their chief commander until 1758, when he retired to Mount Vernon to rest. It was with great satisfaction, however, that, in November, 1758, he accompanied the British forces to the smoking ruins of Fort Duquesne, which was renamed Fort Pitt in honor of England's great Prime Minister. 

Ancestry and Youth of George Washington

       The family of the first President came of a line of well-born Englishmen. They were the Washingtons of Sulgiave Manor, in Northamptonshire, who traced their ancestry to a Nonnan knight of the twelfth century. About the year 1657 John and Lawrence Washington, brothers, emigrated to America, and shortly afterwards purchased estates in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The eldest son of John was Lawrence Washington, the grandfather of the future President. His second son, Augustine, manned Mary Ball as his second wife, and the first child of this marriage, George, was born on February 22, 1732, on the family estate at Bridges Creek, in Westmoreland County. When George was three years old his parents removed to an estate on the Rappahannock River, in Stafford County, and there the boy's first school days were spent. He went to his classes in an old-fashioned school house where the sexton of the parish acted as teacher.
       At the age of eleven George lost his father, and his widowed mother sent him to the old homestead at Bridges Creek to live with his half brother, Augustine. There he attended school until he was nearly sixteen, geometry and surveying being included in his studies. While he was not an apt classical student, he made excellent progress in surveying, and throughout this school period he cultivated robust health by outdoor exercise, such as horseback riding and athletic games. It was when he was thirteen that he wrote the rules of good behavior now so well known.
       Soon after he left school George went to live with his eldest half brother, Lawrence, who was occupying that portion of the estate known as Mount Vernon. Lawrence Washington had married the daughter of William Fairfax, who was the manager of the great estate of his cousin. Lord Fairfax, the head of the family. Lord Fairfax conceived a great liking for young Washington, and presently entrusted to him the task of marking out the boundaries of the Fairfax estate. George began his duties in 1748, when he was but a few days past sixteen, and for many months he endured the hardships of a surveyor in the wilderness. His work was so well done that he was subsequently appointed public surveyor of Culpeper County, and his surveys were considered admirable examples of thoroughness and accuracy.
       In 1751 George accompanied his brother Lawrence on a trip to the West Indies. The journey was undertaken in the hope of restoring the elder brother's health, undermined by service in the British navy. In 1752, a few months after the brothers returned to Virginia, Lawrence died, and George found
himself the guardian of his niece and one of the executors of the estate. The death of this niece a few years later made him master of the mansion and the beautiful grounds about it - the Mount Vernon that is today a sacred place to all loyal Americans. 

Patriot Sons

by Samuel F. Smith

The bright-eyed boys who crowd our schools.
The knights of book and pen.
Weary of childish games and moods.
Will soon be stalwart men -
The leaders in the race of life,
The men to win applause;
The great minds born to guide the state.
The wise to make the laws.

Teach them to guard with jealous care
The land that gave them birth -
As patriot sons of patriot sires.
The dearest spot on earth;
Teach them the sacred trust to keep,
Like true men, pure and brave.
And o'er them thru the ages bid
Freedom's fair banner wave.

True Heroism


Let others write of battles fought
On bloody, ghastly fields,
Where honors greet the man who wins.
And death the man who yields;
But I will write of him who fights
And vanquishes his sins.
Who struggles on through weary years
Against himself and wins.

He is a hero, staunch and brave.
Who fights an unseen foe,
And puts at last beneath his feet
His passions base and low;
Who stands erect in manhood's might.
Undaunted, undismayed;
The bravest man that drew a sword
In foray or in raid.

It calls for something more than brawn
Or muscle to overcome
An enemy who marcheth not
With banner, plume and drum -
A foe forever lurking nigh,
With silent, stealthy tread,
Forever near your board by day.
At night beside your bed.

All honor, then, to that brave heart,
Though poor or rich he be.
Who struggles with his baser part -
Who conquers and is free!
He may not wear a hero's crown,
Nor fill a hero's grave.
But truth will place his name among
The bravest of the brave.

Under The Washington Elm, Cambridge


Eighty years have passed, and more,
Since under the brave old tree
Our fathers gathered in arms, and swore
They would follow the sign their banners bore,
And fight until the land was free.

Half of their work was done.
Half is left to do -
Cambridge and Concord and Lexington!
When the battle is fought and won.
What shall be told of you?

Hark! 'tis the south wind moans -
Who are the martyrs down?
Ah, the marrow was true in your children's bones.
That sprinkled with blood the cursed stones
Of the murder-haunted town!

What if the storm-clouds blow?
What if the green leaves fall?
Better the crashing tempest's throe
Than the army of worms that gnawed below;
Trample them one and all!

Then when the battle is won
And the land from traitors free,
Our children shall tell of the strife begun
When Liberty's second April sun
Was bright on our brave old tree!